Amid an unending spiral of rebellion, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, a heartbroken 14th century Delhi ruler of Turkic origin, lamented: “My kingdom is diseased and no treatment cures it. If I suppress revolt in one place they break out in another.” Contemporary Afghanistan is in a situation identical to what Tughlaq endured six centuries ago. Once a cradle of Hindu-Buddhist civilisation where religion, culture and commerce grew in parallel, Afghanistan is now the exact opposite of its ancient