In August 2010, Vinay Deolalikar, a researcher at HP Labs, Palo Alto, e-mailed a 100-page manuscript titled “P ≠ NP” to 22 leading computer science and mathematics researchers. The manuscript was quickly forwarded to other researchers around the world, with many of them dropping everything else to pore over it. It claimed to have resolved the most high-profile open question in computer science, a problem known simply as “P vs. NP”. As one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems